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"I just ran a 5k in 19:10, so I am going to set my 'Goal Race' at 5k and my 'Goal Time' at 18:55 (a 15sec improvement)."
Make sure you use a result that is 1-2 steps above or below your goal race distance. So you can use a 3k or 5k result to determine your 10k training paces but you would not be able to use an 800m race to determine your Marathon training paces. You could however use your 800 to determine your 1500m training paces. So, make sure you do a time trial or early season race to determine your starting point. You can also use last years results if you are an experienced runner.
Check your EARLY SEASON (95% - 98% of race pace) workout paces for the first 8-10 weeks of your season, MID SEASON (100% of race pace) workout paces for the next 6-8 weeks of your season, and then sprinkle some LATE SEASON (102% to 105% of race pace) workouts into the final 6-8 weeks of the season mixed with some MID SEASON (100% of race pace) workouts.
Note: Every workout will not be at these paces during each stage of the season. These paces and EARLY/MID/LATE season designations are to give you an understanding of what to focus on in each phase.
Recovery Running: 35mins to 1hr 20mins depending on the day (Zone 0 to Zone 1).
Moderate Running: 35mins to 1hr 30mins depending on the day (Zone 1 to Zone 2).
Progressing all season with the following example of progression. Running 1 long run per week. Also, I think that the world of Marthon Running has been most influenced by the progression of quality long runs. You can think of the long runs as easy for a very young athlete and then as the athlete gets older you will want to progress the long runs in volume and intensity. I like to build the long run in volume and then start rotating weeks between 2hrs and 90mins where the 2hrs steadily introduces more of the long run at Zone 2 until you are doing 3miles easy jogging, 12miles @Zone 2, 2-3miles easy jogging and then the 90mins progresses from Zone 1 to Zone 2.5 progressing slowly the entire run. The 90mins sometimes goes to Zone 3 if the athlete is “feeling good.”
Below is an example of 11 weeks progression of the Long Run:
Also, cross training, or other training that allows you the base to complete the Special workouts can fall into this category.
Long intervals can go here too like the one below:
Any Fartlek workouts can be considered Fundamental as well.
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