Pre-Cool to Run Fast in the Heat

By Peter Pfitzinger | DistanceCoach.com

On a per capita basis, Australian athletes win more Olympic medals than any other country. The Australians’ success is due in part to their systematic application of sport science. One example of their attention to detail is the development of special vests to cool off their athletes before competition in the heat. The technique is called pre-cooling and the theory behind it is that by cooling off prior to hot weather exercise, the body has more capacity to store heat, and loses less fluid, during the competition. This is a relatively new area, but several studies have already shown that pre-cooling before exercise can improve running performance in the heat.

How does pre-cooling improve hot weather running performance?

When you run on a hot day, your body must deal with both the heat of your surroundings and the heat produced by your muscles. In fact, over two thirds of the energy produced by the muscles is lost as heat. During hot weather running, more of your blood is sent to your skin for cooling so less blood flows to your working muscles. This means that your heart must beat faster to run at a given pace. Pre-cooling is simply reducing your body temperature slightly before exercise, and can be accomplished in a variety of ways. After pre-cooling, less blood is sent to the skin, so more oxygen-rich blood goes to the muscles. This results in a lower heart rate running at a given pace, which allows you to maintain a faster pace in the heat.

The scientific evidence

Although only a handful of scientific studies have been conducted on pre-cooling for athletes, the results indicate a real benefit for hot weather endurance performance. In a 1995 study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, 14 runners ran to exhaustion in 75 degree heat under normal conditions and after pre-cooling in a chamber for 30 minutes at 41 degrees. Pre-cooling reduced the runners’ rectal temperatures by 0.6 degrees. The investigators found that pre-cooling led to a significant increase in running endurance, and hypothesized that the improvement was due to reduced stress on the runners’ metabolic and cardiovascular systems.

During an earlier study published in the Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, subjects cycled as hard as possible for 1 hour at 65 degrees under normal conditions and after pre-cooling. After pre-cooling, the athletes increased their work rate by 7%. In another phase of this study, athletes cycled as long as possible at 80% of VO2 max. Time to exhaustion increased by 12% after pre-cooling, and both sweat rate and heart rate were lower after pre-cooling. This study suggests that pre-cooling may improve endurance performance even in relatively moderate temperatures.

A 1997 study published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise investigated the effects of cold water immersion on running performance in hot and humid conditions. Subjects ran as far as possible in 30 minutes in 90 degree heat and 60% humidity. Before one trial, subjects reclined in a cold water bath up to the neck for one hour or until they started to shiver continuously. The water temperature was initially 83 degrees but then was lowered to 73 degrees (that may not sound cold, but after a few minutes in water this temperature, you would be anxious to get out). Subjects started the 30 minute performance test 3 minutes after getting out of the bath.

After pre-cooling, the runners’ rectal temperatures were lower by 1.2 degrees Fahrenheit. Subjects averaged 7,252 meters during the control trial and 7,556 meters after pre-cooling, for an increase of 304 meters (just over 4%). This improvement is equivalent to over 1 minute for a 5 mile race.

Read more on how to pre-cool your body.


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